このところ、開発経済学を少し勉強し始めています。どうということはないんですが、国連ミレニアム開発目標 (Millennium Development Goals) を表に取りまとめてみました。
|GOALS and TARGETS||INDICATORS|
|Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger|
Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day.
|1. Proportion of population below $1 (1993 PPP) per day|
2. Poverty gap ratio (incidence x depth of poverty)
3. Share of poorest quintile in national consumption
Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger.
|4. Prevalence of underweight children under five years of age|
5. Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption
|Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education|
Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling.
|6. Net enrolment ratio in primary education|
7. Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 5
8. Literacy rate of 15-24 year-olds
|Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women|
Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015.
| 9. Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education|
10. Ratio of literate women to men, 15-24 years old
11. Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector
12. Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament
|Goal 4: Reduce child mortality|
Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate.
|13. Under-five mortality rate|
14. Infant mortality rate
15. Proportion of 1 year-old children immunized against measles
|Goal 5: Improve maternal health|
Reduce by three quarters, between l990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio.
|16. Maternal mortality ratio|
17. Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel
|Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases|
Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS
|18. HIV prevalence among pregnant women aged 15-24 years|
19. Condom use rate of the contraceptive prevalence rate
20. Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school attendance of non-orphans aged 10-14 years
Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases.
|21. Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria|
22. Proportion of population in malaria-risk areas using effective malaria prevention and treatment measures
23. Prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis
24. Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under DOTS (internationally recommended TB control strategy)
|Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability|
Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources.
|25. Proportion of land area covered by forest|
26. Ratio of area protected to maintain biological diversity to surface area
27. Energy use (kg oil equivalent) per $1,000 GDP (PPP)
28. Carbon dioxide emissions per capita and consumption of ozone-depleting CFCs (ODP tons)
29. Proportion of population using solid fuels
Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and sanitation.
|30. Proportion of population with sustainable access to an improved water source, urban and rural|
31. Proportion of population with access to improved sanitation, urban and rural
By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers
|32. Proportion of households with access to secure tenure|
|Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development|
Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system.
Includes a commitment to good governance, development and poverty reduction — both nationally and internationally
Address the special needs of the least developed countries.
Includes: tariff- and quota-free access for least developed countries' exports; enhanced programme of debt relief for heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction
Address the special needs of landlocked developing countries and small island developing states (through the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and the outcome of the twenty-second special session of the General Assembly)
Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term
|Some of the indicators listed below are monitored separately for the least developed countries (LDCs), Africa, landlocked developing countries (LLDCs) and small island developing states (SIDS)|
Official Development Assistance(ODA)
33. Net ODA, total and to LDCs, as percentage of OECD/Development Assistance Committee (DAC) donors' gross national income (GNI)
34. Proportion of total bilateral, sector-allocable ODA of OECD/DAC donors to basic social services (basic education, primary health care, nutrition, safe water and sanitation)
35. Proportion of bilateral ODA of OECD/DAC donors that is untied
36. ODA received in landlocked developing countries as a proportion of their GNIs
37. ODA received in small island developing states as proportion of their GNIs
38. Proportion of total developed country imports (by value and excluding arms) from developing countries and from LDCs, admitted free of duty
39. Average tariffs imposed by developed countries on agricultural products and textiles and clothing from developing countries
40. Agricultural support estimate for OECD countries as percentage of their GDP
41. Proportion of ODA provided to help build trade capacity
42. Total number of countries that have reached their Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative (HIPC) decision points and number that have reached their HIPC completion points (cumulative)
43. Debt relief committed under HIPC initiative
44. Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services
In cooperation with developing countries, develop and implement strategies for decent and productive work for youth.
|45. Unemployment rate of young people aged 15-24 years, each sex and total|
In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries.
|46. Proportion of population with access to affordable essential drugs on a sustainable basis|
In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications.
|47. Telephone lines and cellular subscribers per 100 population|
48. Personal computers in use per 100 population and Internet users per 100 population
世界経済が悪化の一途をたどり、先進国経済も沈没しかけている今こそ、世界の貧困絶滅に向けて努力すべき時だという気がしています。ダメージは最貧国 (LLDC) の方が先進諸国より大きいと考えられるからです。エコノミストとして、何が出来るのかを考えたいと思います。